TOEFL测试

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TOEFL测试

1、Organisms that are capable of using carbon dioxide as their sole source of carbon are called autotrophs (self-feeders), or producers.

The word sole is closest in meaning to

2、Torsten Husen and his colleagues also have concluded, after reviewing large amounts of data, that improvements in economic and social conditions, and particularly in the availability of schooling, can produce substantial gains in average IQ from one generation to the next.

The word data is closest in meaning to:

3、Ecosystems generally are structured in a food web, a complex network of interconnected food chains. In a food web, consumers participate in several different food chains, comprising both strong interactions and weak interactions between species in the food web.

Which of the following best explains the term “food web”?

4、Certain social scientists have taken a middle, or “synthesizing”, position in this controversy. The synthesizers’ view of intelligence holds that both heredity and environment contribute to differences in measured intelligence.

Which of the following best explains the term “synthesizing”?

5、Detritus feeders - worms, mites, termites, centipedes, snails, crabs, and even vultures, among others - work like an army to consume detritus and excrete nutrients that fuel an ecosystem.

The word others refers to

6、Robert Nichols reviewed all these and other data and concluded that the true value for heredity may be anywhere between 0.40 and 0.80 but that the exact value has little importance for policy.

The word these refers to:

7、The annual krill harvest currently surpasses a million tons, principally as feed for chickens and livestock and as protein for human consumption.

Which of the sentences below best expresses the information in this statement?

8、These improvements, according to Flynn’s analysis, largely stemmed not from genetic improvement in the population but from environmental changes that led to gains in the kinds of skills assessed by IQ tests.

Which of the sentences below best expresses the information in this statement?

9、Today, approximately half of the cultivated acreage in the United States and Canada is planted for animal consumption - beef and dairy cattle, hogs, chickens, and turkeys. Livestock feed includes approximately 80% of the annual corn and nonexported soybean harvest.

How much land is used to grow crops for animal feed?

10、10.Critics countered Jensen’s arguments by contending that a host of environmental factors that affect IQ, including malnutrition and prenatal care are difficult to measure and impossible to separate from hereditary factors. IQ tests are biased, they said, and do not necessarily even measure intelligence.

According to Jensen’s opponents, IQ tests are not reliable because
 

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